Legislative Assembly of Alberta
The Mace

HOMEVISITOR

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Notes

During the research for this publication, a considerable amount of information was discovered which did not particularly lend itself to inclusion in the main text. However, the author felt that most readers would be interested in examining it, and consequently, it is included here as supplementary notes.

1. Name
2. Parents
3. Brothers and Sisters
4. Husband
5. Description
6. Various Accounts of her Sleigh Accident in Ottawa
7. Benevolent Interests
8. Homes
9. Titles and orders
10. Military Associations in Canada

1. Name

Princess Louise was christened Louisa Caroline Alberta: "Louisa" after both of her grand mothers and the second wife of Queen Victoria's uncle, King Leopold of the Belgiums; "Caroline" after Prince Albert's own grandmother and "Alberta" after the Prince himself. Although christened "Louisa," Princess Louise was always known as "Louise."


2. Parents

Princess Louise's mother was Victoria Regina I, Queen of the United Kingdom and Ireland and Empress of India. Queen Victoria was born at Kensington Palace, London, on May 24, 1819, and died at Osborne House, Isle of Wight, on January 22, 1901. She was the only child of Edward, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of George III and Princess Mary Louisa Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. She was christened Alexandrina Victoria and her reign (1837-1901) is the longest in English history. Queen Victoria is credited with restoring dignity and popularity to the British Crown. She was also noted for her devotion to duty, honesty, and lack of affectation.

Princess Louise's father was Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Prince Consort of Queen Victoria. Prince Albert was born near Coburg, Bavaria, on August 26, 1819, and died at Windsor Castle, England, on December 14, 1861. He was the second son of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and Louise, the heiress of Saxe-Gotha. Following his marriage to Queen Victoria on February 10, 1840, he became, in effect, her private secretary and chief confidential advisor. During his lifetime, he was unpopular with the British. However, following his death, at age forty-two, many of his valuable contributions were recognized. Prince Albert was known for his moral outlook, professional manner, and good taste.

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were devoted to each other and were very conscientious parents. Unlike many aristocrats of their time, they had a very close relationship with all of their children.


3. Brothers and Sisters

Princess Louise had four brothers and four sisters. She was the sixth oldest and the fourth of five daughters. In order of their age, eldest first, her brothers and sisters were the following:

1. Victoria, Princess Royal (1840-1901)
Princess Victoria married Prince Frederick William of Prussia who became Emperor Frederick III of Germany. They had seven children.

2. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841-1910)
Prince Edward married Princess Alexandra of Schleswig-Holstein-Sondeburg-Glucksburg, daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark. They had six children. Following his mother's death, Prince Edward became King Edward Vll. He, in turn, was succeeded by his son George V.

3. Alice Maud Mary (1843-1878)
Princess Alice married Prince Frederick William Louis of Hesse-Darmstadt, who became Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt. They had seven children.

4. Alfred Ernest Albert, Duke of Edinburgh (1844-1900)
Prince Alfred married the Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia. They had five children. As well as being Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Alfred was also Earl of Ulster and succeeded his Uncle Ernest as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

5. Helena Augusta Victoria (1846-1923)
Princess Helena married Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. They had five children.

6. Arthur William Patrick Albert, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1850-1942)
Prince Arthur married Louisa Margaret, daughter of Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia. They had three children. As well as being Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Prince Arthur was also Earl of Sussex. He served as Governor General of Canada from 1911 to 1916.

7. Leopold George Duncan Albert, Duke of Albany (1853-1884)
Prince Leopold married Princess Helen Frederica Augusta of Waldeck-Pyrmont. They had two children. As well as being Duke of Albany, Prince Leopold was also Earl of Clarence. He suffered from haemophilia and died at the age of thirty-one.

8. Beatrice May Victoria Feodore (1857-1944)
Princess Beatrice married Prince Henry of Battenberg. They had three children.


4. Her Husband

Princess Louise married John Campbell, the Marquis of Lorne, on March 21, 1871.

John George Edward Henry Sutherland Campbell was born at Stafford House, London, on August 8, 1845. He was the son of George Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll, and Lady Elizabeth Leveson-Gower, eldest daughter of the 2nd Duke of Sutherland. The Campbell family was the most powerful of the highland clans of Scotland and their family seat was, and still is, located at Inveraray.

The Marquis of Lorne was educated at the Edinburgh Academy, Eton College, and St. Andrews and Cambridge universities. Following the completion of his education, he entered politics and served as the Member of Parliament (Liberal) for Argyllshire, Scotland, from 1868 to 1878. From 1868 to 1871, he also acted as personal secretary to his father who was then serving as Secretary of State for India.

By the standards of the time, the Marquis of Lorne was considered good-looking. He was fair and had blue eyes. As well, he had a pleasing personality and is described as being amiable, enthusiastic, and temperate in all of his habits.

Following his marriage to Princess Louise in 1871, he served as Governor General of Canada from 1878 to 1883. It is generally acknowledged that he asserted himself well during his term of office. In this regard, the July 7, 1883, edition of the Edmonton Bulletin noted: "He had no blarney to offer, and his talents were not of the glittering kind which awaken popular enthusiasm. He merely attended to his business thoroughly and left that of others alone."

After his return to Britain, he reentered politics. After being defeated as the Liberal candidate for Hampstead in 1885, he was eventually elected Member of Parliament (Liberal-Unionist) for South Manchester and served in that capacity from 1895 to 1900. He then succeeded his father as the 9th Duke of Argyll in 1900, was elevated to the House of Lords, and given the title Lord Sundridge.

The Marquis of Lorne was a Knight of the Thistle (1873), a Knight of the Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. George (1878), and Governor and Constable of Her Majesty's Castle of Windsor (1892).

As noted in the text of this book, he possessed considerable literary ability. A partial list of his works follows:

The Adventures of John Pas-Plus. New York: J.W. Lovell Company [1891]. 191 pages.

Canadian Life and Scenery, With Hints to Intending Immigrants and Settlers. London: Religious Tract Society, 1886. 191 pages.

The Canadian North-west: Speech Delivered at Winnipeg by His Excellency the Marquis of Lorne, Governor General of Canada, After His Tour Through Manitoba and the North-west, During the Summer of 1881 . . . Ottawa, 1881. 22 pages.

Canadian Pictures, Drawn With Pen and Pencil. London: The Religious Tract Society [1885]. 224 pages.

From Shadow to Sunlight. New York: Appleton and Company, 1891.

Guido and Lita: a Tale of the Riviera. London: Macmillan and Company, 1875. 124 pages.

Imperial Federation. London: S. Sonnenschein and Company, 1890. 142 pages.

Intimate Letters of the Eighteenth Century. New York: John Lane Company, 1910. 2 volumes.

Memories of Canada & Scotland. London: Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1883. 360 pages.

This book contains a number of poems that should be of particular interest to Albertans. Their titles are "The Blackfeet," "Cree Fairies," "On the New Province of'Alberta'," "The Prairie Roses," "The Song of the Six Sisters," and "Westward Ho!"

Our Railway to the Pacific. London: Ibister and Company, Limited, 1886. 32 pages.

This book was illustrated by Princess Louise.

Passages from the Past. London: Hutchinson and Company, 1907. 2 volumes.
This book contains the Marquis of Lorne's "Diarmid" excluding the musical score.

A Trip to the Tropics and Home Through America. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1867.335 pages.

V.R. I: Her Life and Empire. London: J.M. Dent and Company, Publishers [1901]. 378 pages.

Viscount Palmerston, K.G. London: J.M. Dent and Company, 1906. 240 pages.

Yesterday & To-day in Canada. London: G. Allen and Sons, 1910. 429 pages.

It should also be noted that the Marquis of Lorne wrote many scholarly papers and, as noted earlier, versified the Psalms. The most famous of these is his versification of the 121st Psalm. The full text of this work can be found on page 50 of Cecil Northcott's Hymns We Love: Stories of the Hundred Most Popular Hymns, Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1954. It is also included in several Canadian church hymnaries.

The Marquis of Lorne died of pneumonia on May 4, 1913, and was buried at Holy Loch, Scotland.


5. Description

As an adult, Princess Louise was tall and slim. She had rich brown-coloured hair and blue eyes. She stood very erect and was always immaculately groomed. Because of her artistic flair, she had excellent taste in clothes and always saw that her personal quarters, including those at Rideau Hall, Ottawa, were properly furnished. Although of independent mind, Princess Louise had a gentle manner and was unaffected. She mingled freely with people and had very democratic views and sentiments concerning human relations. The less fortunate were always her concern. Although somewhat serious and intent in expression, she would quickly break into a bright smile when the occasion warranted. Her natural beauty was never contested.


6. Various Accounts of her Sleigh Accident in Ottawa

The account of Princess Louise's sleigh accident in Ottawa that is included in the main text of this book is the Marquis of Lorne's own and is taken from David Duff's H.R.H. Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, Duchess of Argyll. However, as is nearly always the case in such instances, there is a considerable amount of variation in reports concerning the accident.

One of these contradictions involves the type of vehicle. In his book, David Duff indicates that it was a wheeled carriage. However, Ottawa writers of the time state that it was a sleigh. Based on his reading concerning the accident, this writer has concluded that the vehicle in question was a closed-in or coach-type sleigh.

In his book Canada Under the Administration of Lorne, J.E. Collins describes Princess Louise's injuries in a somewhat different manner than does the Marquis of Lorne. He states that Princess Louise received "a severe contusion on the head, a wound in the neck, and the wire of one of her earrings was torn out through the flesh."

And finally, in an account of the accident reported in the December 4, 1939, edition of the Edmonton Journal, a Colonel Bowie stated that Princess Louise and the Governor General were travelling in separate sleighs and that Princess Louise's sleigh overturned on the icy roadway just after it went out through the gateway to Government House and had turned onto Sussex Street. He stated that: "The horses took fright and ran more than 100 yards before they could be brought under control. The Princess made light of the accident but when she was unable to shake off the effects of the painful experience, she returned to England and physicians there found a piece of glass lodged in her ear. "


7. Benevolent Interests

The general nature of Princess Louise's benevolent interests was noted in the main text of this book. However, a more specific list of some of her associations follows:

Band of Hope (temperance)
Charing Cross Hospital
Edinburgh College of Domestic Science
Edinburgh School of Cookery
Gentlewoman's Employment Association
Girls' Public Day School Company
Heritage Craft Schools for Crippled Children
Heritage Homes (rehabilitation of military veterans)
Home for Recovery (convalescent home for infirm hospital dischargees)
Kyrle Society (literary development of the poor)
Lending Library of Books for the Blind
National Society for the Protection of Young Girls
National Trust for Places of Historic Interest and Natural Beauty
Miss Rye's Home (a Canadian shelter for girls)
Princess Louise Home for Girls (a British shelter for girls)
Princess Louise Kensington Hospital for Children
Princess Louise Nurses for Children
Royal Canadian Academy of the Arts
St. John's Ambulance Association
Soldiers' and Sailors' Families Association (care and resettlement)
South Kensington School of Art
Women's Emigration Society (welfare of British women emigrants)


8. Homes

Prior to her marriage, Princess Louise lived at Buckingham Palace, Osborne House, and Windsor and Balmoral Castles. Following her marriage to the Marquis of Lorne, her first home was I Grosvenor Square, London (now called Macdonald House). They then purchased a small country home near Royal Tunbridge Wells, England, which they called "Dornden." Financial considerations led them to give up Dornden in favour of some vacant apartments at Kensington Palace in London.

During their stay in Canada, their official residence was Rideau Hall, Ottawa. In the summer, they spent a considerable amount of time at the Citadel, Quebec City.

In Scotland, Princess Louise stayed at the ancestral home of the Marquis of Lorne, Inveraray Castle. However, following a devastating fire at that location, they needed a new home. At first it was Kilkatrine and then Roseneath. Roseneath is located on a small peninsula near Helensburg. When his father died, the Marquis of Lorne took over Inveraray Castle. A full length portrait of Princess Louise can be found there on a second floor landing. The Marquis of Lorne found the upkeep of the castle a financial strain and from time to time it was leased or left vacant. When her husband died, Princess Louise retained Roseneath as her dower house. In 1938, she moved to Dalekenna which is located on Loch Fyne, Scotland.

Another home was Kent House, which is located near Osborne on the Isle of Wight. This residence was particularly convenient for Princess Louise when her mother, Queen Victoria, was staying at Osborne House.

However, Kensington Palace was Princess Louise's home for sixty years, and it is that location that is most closely associated with ber name. She died there in 1939.


9. Titles and Orders

Princess Louise's full title at the time her husband, the Marquis of Lorne, was Governor General of Canada was H.R.H. (Her Royal Highness) Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, Marchioness of Lorne. When the Marquis of Lorne became the 9th Duke of Argyll in 1900, Princess Louise became the Duchess of Argyll.

In 1874, Czar Alexander II of Russia presented Princess Louise with the Order of St. Catherine. Among the Coronation Honours of 1937, the Dame Grand Cross was conferred on Princess Louise.


10. Military Associations in Canada

Four Canadian Army regiments are associated with Princess Louise's name:

  • The Princess Louise Dragoon Guards - so named on January 3, 1879
  • The Princess Louise Fusiliers - so named on November 14, 1879
  • 8th Canadian Hussars (Princess Louise's) - officially associated with Princess Louise's name on July 18, 1884
  • The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada (Princess Louise's) - officially associated with Princess Louise's name on October 15, 1920

All four of these units served with distinction during World Wars I (1914-1918) and II (1939-1945). The Princess Louise Dragoon Guards also served during the Boer War (1899-1900). The Princess Louise Fusiliers served during the Canadian North West Rebellion (1885), the Boer War, and both World Wars. Drawings of these units' hat badges follow:

From The Regiments and Corps of the Canadian Army, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1964. Reproduced Courtesy of the Minister of National Defence.

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